Mapping the War Economy in the Baltimore/DC Regional Corridor

Mapping the War Economy in the Baltimore/DC Regional Corridor

Image by: John Duda

Click here to download the full-size map

The region centered around the Chesapeake Bay is perhaps one of the most militarized regions in the United States—radiating out from the central command of the US military at the Pentagon in Washington D.C. is a whole patchwork of bases, proving grounds, ordnance depots, training camps, intelligence agencies, military schools and military hospitals, stretching south to the major naval installations in Norfolk and north to Frederick’s Ft. Detrick and the Aberdeen Proving Ground. With the 2005 “BRAC” (for “Base Realignment and Closure”) commission’s plan for restructuring and rationalizing the US military’s physical footprint, the size of Maryland’s military installations is slated to grow as bases elsewhere are decommissioned. 

But it’s not just the tens of thousands of soldiers, sailors, and spies that tie the economy of the region to the national war machine—the corridor between Washington and the Beltway up to Baltimore City is teeming with the industrial half of the military industrial complex as well. It seems that one of the few growth industries left in the region is the business of war— and so the weapons makers, the mercenary private contractors, and the security consultants, proliferate across the landscape of suburban office parks. Attracted by the proximity to the decision makers in the Pentagon, in the various branches of government and in the corridors of the national security establishment (and these decision makers’ ability to spend billions and billions of dollars on war and its accoutrements), more and more major defense contractors are relocating their headquarters to the region. And of course, the research behind all these new means of waging war in the 21st century comes out of military funded projects at higher educational institutions—Maryland, and especially Johns Hopkins university, is a major player in this game as well. It’s harder to map this network of researchers and contractors—many of the larger firms involved in the war have dozens of offices and facilities spread throughout the region, and layers of of subcontractors and subsidiaries make the picture even more murky. The map presented here is therefore far from definitive—in particular, much of the $87 trillion in defense contracts awarded to corporations in Maryland from 2000 to 2008 is not represented on this map, which only shows some of the major companies whose primary business is making war, and not the hundreds of companies which supply the military with everything from office supplies to uniforms to food.

 

Military and National Security Installations 

A FORT DETRICK 

• 8,000  Army  and  civilian  personnel 

• US  Army  Medical  Research  and  Materiel Command 

• Army  Medical  Research  Institute  of  Infectious Disease 

• National  Interagency  Biodefense  Campus 

Fort Detrick is one of the major sites in the US military research archipelago investigating biological warfare, and was the source of the weaponized anthrax used in the 2001 anthrax attacks. 

B CAMP FRETTERD 

• Training  Base  for  MD  National  Guard 

C ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND 

• 3,116  Army  and  civilian  personnel 

• Largest  proving  ground  in  the  US  (vehicle/weapons tests) 

• 16th Ordnance Battalion 

• 61st Ordnance Brigade, Ordnance Me- 

chanical Maintenance School 

• 143rd Ordnance Battalion 

The Edgewood Chemical Activity chemical weapons depot at the Aberdeen Proving ground, now closed (but still highly toxic), once housed five percent of the US’s arsenal of chemical weapons. 

(Not shown on map are some offsite facilities associated with the APG, including the Churchville testing ground in Harford County and the Carroll Island chemical weapons testing area) 

D DOvER AFB 

• Largest  military  mortuary  in  the  DoD,  has been used for processing military personnel killed in both peace and wartime, including casualties from Iraq and Afghanistan 

• 436th Airlift Wing, Air Mobility Com- 

mand 

• 512th Airlift Wing, Air Force Reserve 

E NAVAL ACADEMY

• Educates  and  commissions  officers  of the  US Navy and Marine Corps 

F FORT MEADE 

• 10,000  military  and  civilian  personnel   

(plus another 5,000 due to BRAC) 

• Defense  Information  School 

• Defense  Courier  Service 

• Defense  Information  Systems  Agency 

G NATIONAL SECURITY AGENCY

• Center of  the  US  apparatus  of  global  

electronic surveillance 

• Personnel  levels  classified,  probably  

greater than 15,000 

H ADELPHI ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY 

• Major  research  facility  for  militarized  engineering 

The Adelphi Lab is adjacent to the now closed (and highly polluted) Naval Surface Warfare Center. 

I ANDREWS AFB 

• 20,000  active  duty  and  civilian  personnel 

• Air Force  316th Wing 

• Air  Mobility  Command  89th Airlift 

Wing 

• Air  Force  Office  of  Special  Investiga- 

tions 

• Air Force Reserve Command 459th Air 

Refueling Wing 

• Air National Guard 113th Wing 

J PENTAGON 

• Headquarters  for  the  US  Military  Industrial Complex 

K BOLLING AFB 

• 11th Wing 

• Defense  Intelligence  Analysis  Center 

L FORT MYER 

• US  Army  Air  Operations  Group 

• 3rd US Infantry (The Old Guard) 

• Home  of  Army  Chief  of  Staff  General  

George Casey 

M FORT BELvOIR 

• 7,000  military  and  civilian  personnel,  

with 19,000 more on the way due to 

BRAC over next three years 

• HQ  for  Defense  Contract  Audit  Agency 

• HQ  for  Defenser  Technical Information  Center 

• Army  major  command  headquarters 

* HQ for Defense Logistics Agency

N INDIAN HEAD NAvAL ORDNANCE CENTER 

• Designs, tests  and  manufactures  explosive warhead and propellants and propulsion systems for guns, missiles, rockets and ejector seats in military aircraft. 

O QUANTICO MARINE BASE 

• 12,000  Military  and  civilian  personnel 

P DAHLGREN NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER 

• 2,400  Scientists  and  Engineers 

• Conducts  Research  in  biotechnology,  chemistry, mathematics, laser and computer technology, chemical, mechanical, electrical and systems engineering. 

Q PATUXENT NAVAL AIR STATION 

• 17,000  personnel 

• Extensive  aircraft,  propulsion  systems,  and weapons testing 

R FORT A.P. HILL RESERVATION 

• One  of  the  largest  East  Coast  military  installations 

• Used  year-round  for  military  training  of  both active and reserve troops of the Army, 

• Navy, Marines, and Air Force 

• Also  host  trainings  of  foreign al lies’ forces 

 

NOT SHOWN: 

The militarized Chesapeake extends all the way to the Atlantic—major bases at the mouth of the bay include Langley AFB, Ft. Eustis, and the Norfolk Naval Station, the largest Naval base in the world. 

 

Academic and Corporate Installations 

1 BECHTEL 

The largest engineering firm in the US landed massive contracts to rebuild Iraq after the invasion and occupation destroyed it. In 2004, Bechtel National, the 

division overseeing these contracts, was moved from San Fransisco to Frederick. 

2 AAI 

Aerospace subsidiary of Textron focusing on the construction of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (drones), including the RQ-7B "Shadow." Received $2.6 billion in defense contracts from 2000-2008.

3. RAYTHEON

Awarded nearly $5.5 billion in 2009 alone (making i the fifth largest recipient of defense funds), Raytheon provides a wide range of advanced aerospace and electronic technologies to the military. In the region, Raytheon Technical Services Company, based in Reston, VA, employs 9,500 people, and a facility on Joppa Road in Towson handles communication-related military contracts.

4 JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY

The Johns Hopkins University was, in 2002, the number one recepient of defense funding within the academic system, and is routinely in the top three, with hundreds of millions of dollars yearly funding a large percentage of the institution's research. While the bulk of the research takes place at the "Advanced Physics Laboratory" (see below), plenty of research takes place in and around more familiar Baltimore campuses-- like the "Human Language Technology Center of Excellence," located at the southern tip of Hampden, whose website refuses to name 'our government sponsor" (it's the DOD) on whose behalf they develop classified infrastructure for more efficient surveillance of natural language communication.

5 COBHAM 

The NURAD Technologies division of Cobham, located just to the west of Druid Hill Park, raked in $48 million in defense contracts from 2000-2008. 

6 EQUINOX

Builds military sensor technology, including face recognition systems. 

7 NORTHROP GRUMMAN 

The third largest defense contractor in 2009, receiving nearly $8.5 billion in contracts, already operates facilities and offices 

in Baltimore, Columbia, Annapolis, and many other locations in Maryland—and early in 2010 it announced it would be moving its corporate headquarters from 

 

Los Angeles to the D.C. Area. 

8 APPLIED PHYSICS LABORATORY

See page 14 for an in-depth look at Johns Hopkins “other campus,” where the bulk of its staggering defense research contracts are carried out. 

9 BOEING 

2009’s second largest defense contractor (with nearly $8.5 billion in contracts) operates a number of offices and facilities in the region, including Boeing Integrated 

Defense Services, located just down the street from the NSA. 

10 PROTEUS 

“Cyber Warfare” corporation next door to the NSA. 

11 NISC 

National Interest Security Company, recently acquired by IBM, also involved in NSA-related computing. 

12 BAE SYSTEMS 

The US branch of this multinational defense corporation (#14 in 2009 with $1.7 billion in defense contracts) is headquarted in Rockville. 

13 UNIVERSITy OF MARYLAND 

While not as big a destination for defense funding as Johns Hopkins, a significant amount of military and national security research and training is carried out through the University of Maryland system as well. For instance, in 2009, the University of Maryland at College Park became an “Intelligence Community Center of Academic Excellence.” As Jacques Gansler, who went from being the undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics to holding UMD’s Roger C. Lipitz Chair in “Public Policy and Private Enterprise” puts it: “The university is fully engaged in critical research areas that are vital to advancing national defense and security efforts.” 

14 ARINC 

The international headquarters of this company, specializing in aerospace communications technologies and owned by the Carlyle Group, is located in Annapolis, although they also maintain facilities in Glen Burnie, Edgewater, Millersville, on the Patuxent River, and at Bolling AFB. 

 

15 LOCKHEED MARTIN 

2009’s single largest corporate recipient of defense contracts (to the tune of nearly $11 billion) has its headquarters in Bethesda, Maryland. 

16 UNITED TECHNOLOGIES 

The #17 2009 defense contractor (with over $1.3 billion in contracts), is headquartered in Connecticut but maintains a strong presence in D.C. 

17 CARLYLE GROUP

The massive global investment firm, with extensive ties to the first and second Bush administrations, is headquartered in D.C., where it manages a diverse portfolio of war profiteering. 

18 ORBITAL SCIENCES 

A major player in the militarization of outer space (for instance missile defense systems), Orbital has its headquarters in Dulles, VA. 

19 BOOz ALLEN HAMILTON 

A gigantic consulting company with extensive and profitable ties to the military and national security establishments, 

Booz Allen Hamilton is headquartered in McLean, VA. 

20 ITT 

ITT’s Defense and Information Solutions division is located in McLean, VA—ITT as a whole made nearly $2.5 billion in 2009 from defense contracts. 

21 SAIC 

With over $3.2 billion in defense contracts in 2009, SAIC was the #7 biggest recipient of military funding. 

22 SRA INTERNATIONAL 

SRA, headquartered in Fairfax, VA, deals primarily with systems engineering for the military and national security establishment. 

23 MITRE CORpORATION 

One of MITRE’s corporate headquarters is in McLean, VA, but the company, which focuses on defense-related systems engineering also has extensive operations 

elsewhere throughout Maryland and Virginia. 

24 COMPUTER SCIENCES CORPORATION (CSC) 

Headquartered in Falls Church, VA, with $2.3 billion in defense contract revenue in 2009. 

25 DYN CORP

Headquartered in Falls Church, focused on aerospace and logistics support. 

26 GENERAL DYNAMICS 

With $5.3 billion in defense contract revenue in 2009, and headquartered in Falls Church, General Dynamics is one of the 

major contractors involved in military shipbuilding. 

27 MANTECH 

$265 million in defense contracts in 2009 for “leading the convergence of national security and technology.” Headquartered in Fairfax, with extensive operations 

throughout Maryland and Virginia.28 KBR

Almost $5.5 billion in 2009 defense contracts, the massive global construction contractor, formerly a subsidiary of Halliburton (headed by Dick Cheney from 

 

1995-2000), maintains a major office around the corner from the Pentagon. 

29 CACI 

Headquartered in Arlington, VA, with $1.2 billion in defense contracts in 2009, CACI is a major IT consultant to the US war machine. 

30 L3 COMMUNICATIONS 

L3, with $3.8 billion in 2009 defense-related revenue, is one of the most important firms supplying the military with battlefield electronics, and has a major of- 

fice in Arlington, VA. 

SOURCES: 

http://www.governmentcontractswon

com 

http://washingtontechnology.com/ 

toplists/top-100-lists/2009.aspx 

http://www.commondreams.org/ 

views04/0428-08.htm 

 

John is a member of the Red Emma's Bookstore Coffeehouse Collective and is finishing a PhD at the Humanities Center at Johns Hopkins on the history of the idea of self-organization.